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Normal and Abnormal Behaviors

Updated: Apr 2

Abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with psychopathology and abnormal behavior, or the patterns of emotion, thought, and behavior that can be signs of a mental health condition. The term covers a broad range of disorders, from depression to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to personality disorders.

The term "abnormal" is the subject of considerable debate. What exactly is "normal" and who gets to decide? The social norms that are often used to determine what is normal versus abnormal can shift over time, so settling on a standard definition isn't simple or straightforward.

Counselors, psychologists, and psychotherapists often work directly in this field, often in a clinical context. Rather than the distinction between normal and abnormal, psychologists in this field focus on the level of distress that behaviors, thoughts, or emotions might cause.

This article discusses what abnormal psychology is and the different topics studied by this area of psychology. It also covers how abnormality is defined and some of the criticisms of abnormal psychology.

Defining Abnormality

If a behavior is creating problems in a person's life or is disruptive to other people, then this would be an "abnormal" behavior. In such cases, the behavior may require some type of mental health intervention.

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), nearly one in five U.S. adults live with a mental illness.1

The following characteristics are usually included:

  • Abnormal behavior occurs infrequently. However, statistical infrequency alone is not a sufficient definition. Some healthy, desirable, and beneficial behaviors also occur infrequently. And other uncommon behaviors or characteristics have no bearing on how a person behaves or functions. So just because something is unusual or uncommon does not mean it should be defined as abnormal.

  • Abnormal behavior creates distress. These behaviors may disturb the individual, or they may be upsetting and disruptive to others.

  • Abnormal behavior affects a person's ability to function. People who are displaying these behaviors may struggle to function normally in their daily life, which can affect their relationships, work, school, and home life.

  • Abnormal behavior is socially disruptive. It may violate social norms and make it difficult for people to function in social settings and maintain social relationships. 


Abnormal psychology doesn't just address behaviors that are considered statistically infrequent. Instead, it focuses on behaviors that create distress, make it difficult to function, and that may be socially disruptive. 

What Are the Four Approaches to Abnormal Psychology?

There are a number of different perspectives used in abnormal psychology. While some psychologists or psychiatrists may focus on a single viewpoint, many mental health professionals use elements from multiple areas in order to better understand and treat psychological disorders.

Psychoanalytic Approach

This perspective has its roots in the theories of Sigmund Freud.2 The psychoanalytic approach suggests that many abnormal behaviors stem from unconscious thoughts, desires, and memories.

While these feelings are outside of awareness, they are still believed to influence conscious actions.

Therapists who take this approach believe that by analyzing their memories, behaviors, thoughts, and even dreams, people can uncover and deal with some of the feelings that have been leading to maladaptive behaviors and distress.

Behavioral Approach

This approach to abnormal psychology focuses on observable behaviors.3 In behavioral therapy, the focus is on reinforcing positive behaviors and not reinforcing maladaptive behaviors.

The behavioral approach targets only the behavior itself, not the underlying causes. When dealing with abnormal behavior, a behavioral therapist might utilize strategies such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning to help eliminate unwanted behaviors and teach new behaviors.

Medical Approach

This approach to abnormal psychology focuses on the biological causes of mental illness, emphasizing understanding the underlying cause of disorders, which might include genetic inheritance, related physical illnesses, infections, and chemical imbalances. Medical treatments are often pharmacological in nature, although medication is often used in conjunction with some type of psychotherapy.

Cognitive Approach

The cognitive approach to abnormal psychology focuses on how internal thoughts, perceptions, and reasoning contribute to psychological disorders. Cognitive treatments typically focus on helping the individual change their thoughts or reactions.

Cognitive therapy might also be used in conjunction with behavioral methods in a technique known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).


Psychologists often look at abnormal behaviors through a number of different perspectives including the psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive, and medical approaches. Such perspectives can influence how a condition is treated, but therapists also often draw on techniques from multiple approaches.

Topics in Abnormal Psychology

The main topics in abnormal psychology are the study, understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders. Psychological disorders are defined as patterns of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life. These conditions create distress for the person experiencing symptoms.

Mental health professionals use the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), for a variety of purposes. The manual contains a listing of psychiatric disorders, diagnostic codes, information on the prevalence of each disorder, and diagnostic criteria. Some of the categories of psychological disorders include:

  • Anxiety disorders, such as social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder

  • Mood disorders, such as depression and bipolar disorder

  • Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder

  • Neurocognitive disorders including delirium

  • Personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

  • Substance use disorders

Criticisms of Abnormal Psychology

The field of abnormal psychology is not without criticism. In addition to debates over the use of the term "abnormal" itself, some believe that this area has a number of shortcomings.

In particular, some feel that this area stigmatizes vulnerable and oppressed people. Critics also suggest that the field of abnormal psychology tends to pathologize normal variations in human behavior.4

Some also propose that the medical approach to mental illness often focuses only on biological and genetic determinants of distress rather than taking a more holistic view.5 It also does not account for the fact that there are major cultural differences in what is deemed normal and abnormal.

Research has also found that learning more about abnormal psychology appears to do little to combat stigma regarding mental illness. One study found that teaching students about abnormal psychology did not reduce mental health stigma, improve attitudes toward mental illness, or increase help-seeking behaviors among students.6


Abnormal psychology may focus on atypical behavior, but its focus is not to ensure that all people fit into a narrow definition of "normal." In most cases, it is centered on identifying and treating problems that may be causing distress or impairment in some aspect of an individual's life. By better understanding what is "abnormal," researchers and therapists can come up with new ways to help people live healthier and more fulfilling lives.

How Psychological Disorders Are Diagnosed


  • Why are correlational research designs often used in abnormal psychology? Correlational research is often used to study abnormal psychology because experimental research would be unethical or impossible. Researchers cannot intentionally manipulate variables to see if doing so causes mental illness. While correlational research does not allow researchers to determine cause and effect, it does provide valuable information on relationships between variables. Learn More: What Is Correlational Research?

  • What are the core concepts of abnormal psychology? Key concepts include that abnormality can be viewed through many different lenses and that mental disorders often have multiple causes, including genetics and experiences. Another is that culture has an influence on how we define abnormality, so what is considered abnormal in one culture is perfectly normal in another.

  • How did the study of abnormal psychology originate? The study of abnormal behavior dates back to the time of the ancient Greeks. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, thinkers such as Sigmund Freud suggested that mental health conditions could be treated with methods including talk therapy.  

  • Why is abnormal psychology important? The study of abnormal psychology has helped researchers and therapists better understand the causes of mental disorders and develop methods to effectively treat these conditions. By understanding the factors that affect mental health, psychologists can help people overcome impairment, relieve distress, and restore functioning.

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